Questions and Answers about History of Shimabara

2. About the feudal lords

1. What kind of politics did Matsukura Shigemasa do?
(1) The construction (the making of territory nation's capital) of Shimabara Castle and the castle town.
(2) The land survey and knew the economic conditions in the domain.
(3) The construction of ponds or dikes improved agriculture production capacity.
(4) Achieved profit by Western trade, and enjoyed a rich finance.
(5) Controlled Christianity severely
2. Why Lord did Matsukura build Shimabara Castle?
(1) As the center of the government of the domain, Hara and Hinoe castles were
deviated to the south and was inconvenient.
(2) It was necessary to keep the castle away from the center of the Christians.
(3) To show the authority of the new feudal lord widely.
(4) In case of a battle, a big and strong castle was needed to ensure the foothold in the defense.
3. Where does Mr. Matsukura come from?
Originally he is from Ecchu (Toyama), he was in the post of senior retainer of vassal, Tsutui Jyunkei of Toyotomi Hideyoshi formerly. Because he entered the government service to Tokugawa Ieyasu after the fall of Tsutsui and participated actively in a camp battle of Osaka, he succeeded and became a lord of Yamato Gojo (Nara prefecture) yielding 10,000 koku. In 1616, Matsukura Shigemasa came over as a fief lord of Shimabara yielding 40,000 koku
4. Where did Lord Matsudaira come from and for what purpose?
(1) The shogunate government sent a hereditary daimyo out to Shimabara domain. Because Lord Matsukura took the responsibility for the revolt of Shimabara, and Lord Koriki also failed in politics after he came to Shimabara, he was sent off to recover the confused state of this territory.
(2) The Matsudaira family was chosen as a watchdog and Nagasaki magistrate's guardian (surveillance of overseas trade etc.) among a lot of outside vassals (Fudai Daimyos) in Kyushu.
(3) The family came from Fukozu (Aichi prefecture). They had been transferred to Shinobu, Omigawa, Kariya, Yoshida and Fukuchiyama (Kyoto prefecture). In the year 1669, Tadafusa Matsudaira came over to this domain
5. Why is it that Mr. Matsudaira took the place of Mr. Toda before he finished his office?
Tadamasa, the fifth lord, was too young to take the responsibilities as a watchdog of Nagasaki port and the behind-the-scene superintendent at the age of 12. So he was made to take the place by Mr. Toda Tadamitsu from Utsunomiya domain in 1749.
6. Who else took an active part besides Lord Matsukura?
The Matsudaira clan followed 13 generations from Tadafusa. The feudal lords are as follows

(1) Matsudaira Tadafusa'1669(Kanbun 9th )-1700(Genroku 13th ), died of an illness in Edo(81 years old); Heritary vassel(Fudai) from Mikawa domain: the founder of Shimabara-Matsudaira family

(2) Matsudaira Tadataka'1698(Genruoku 11th )-1736(Ganbun 1st ), died of an illness in Edo(63 years old), Produced 'The Shimabara survey report'

(3) Matsudaira Tadami'1735(Kyouho 20th )-1738(Genbun 3rd )' died of an illness in Shimabara(27 years old);Erected 'Fugendo' and 30 Banjin

(4) Matsudaira Tadatoki' 1738 (Genbun 3rd )- 1749 (Kan'en 2nd ) Suddenly died in Kudamatsu(33 years old); planted 100,000 wax trees

(5)Matsudaira Tadamasa'1749 (Kan'en 2nd )- 1762(Horeki 12th ) Succeeded his father in 1749, but were made to transfer to Utsunomiya because of his early age; died at the age of 63
Toda Tadamitsu' 1749 (Kan'en 2nd )Moved from Utsunomiya- 1781 (Tenmei 1st ) died at the age of 52 ; exchanged the lords with Matsudaira clan
Toda Tadahiro' 1754 (Horeki 4th )- 1,774 (An'ei 3rd ) moved to Utsunomiya

(6) Matsudaira Tadahiro'1775(An'ei 4th )-1792 (Kansei 4th ) died in Moriyama at the age of 50; His dream came true and moved back to Shimabara, but died suddenly of the outbreak of the Kansei Catastrophe

(7) Matsudaira Tadayari'1792 (Kansei 4th )-1819 (Bunsei 2nd ), died of an illness in Edo(48 years old), devoted himself to the revival from the calamity; founded a domain school called 'Keiko kan' (an martial school)

(8) Matsudaira Tadayori'1819 (Bunsei 2nd )-1840 (Tenpo 11th ), died of an illness in Shimabara(41 years old), Founded a domain school 'Saishu kan', Ote-beach reclamation

(9) Matsudaira Tadanari' 1840 (Tenpo 11th )- 1847 (Koka 4th ) died of an illness in Edo(23 years old), a castaway 'Shiamabara Takichi' came back from Mexico

(10) Matsudaira Tadakiyo' 1847 (Koka 4th )- 1859 (Ansei 6th ) died of an illness in Shimabara(27 years old)
Putyatin visited Nagasaki port; the Shimabara feudal clan dispatched the troops;
Japan opened the country

(11) Matsudaira Tadaatsu' 1859 (Ansei 6th )- 1860 (Man'en 1st ) died of an illness in
Edo(16 years old)Premature death, unable to take up his new post in Shimahara

(12) Matsudaira Tadachika' 1860 (Man'en 1st) -1862 (Bunkyu 2nd ) died of an illness in Edo(17 years old); the lord died young again

(13) Matsudaira Tadakazu' 1862 (Bunkyu 2nd )- 1869 (Meiji 2nd )
Restoration of the Imperial Rule; Return of the land and people from the feudal
lords to the Emperor. Became the first governor of the Shimabara domain.
Withdrew to Tokyo, and the castle demolished in 1872(Meiji 5th )
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